The Global Ethnohydrology Study is a transdisciplinary, multi-year, multi-site program of research that examines the range of variation in local ecological knowledge of water issues, also known as “ethnohydrology.” It will focus on showing how factors, such as increasing urbanization, water scarcity and climate change, are related to changes in cultural ideas and knowledge.
The Global Ethnohydrology Study uses cutting-edge systematic ethnographic methods drawn from anthropology. These allow us to understand how and why culture (perceptions, norms and beliefs) is shaped ecologically and varies from person-to-person and place-to-place, so that we can better discern both the particularities and generalities about how we all see and respond to water issues, local and global. One additional outcome of the project has been innovation in how cultural data more generally are collected, analyzed and interpreted in ways that allow meaningful comparison across diverse settings.
This innovative study was initiated in Phoenix, Arizona, United States, with funding from the United States National Science Foundation’s Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC) and Central-Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER) programs. With the studies focused in Phoenix as its first phase, the Global Ethnohydrology Study has subsequently focused on examining cross-cultural understandings of water institutions, or the rules and norms used to distribute water, and water scarcity, including in relation to climate change, health and sustainability throughout the globe.
Research is being conducted in five ecologically, culturally and politically distinct world regions: tropical South America, North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. We do most of our data collection each summer at multiple, purposively selected sites across the globe, with the assistance of global health and anthropology students from ASU. Undergraduate and graduate students are also collaborating in tool design and in data management and analysis in our lab, becoming trained in how to do research.
Each year, we focus in on a different specific issue, made possible through collaborating with diverse sets of experts:
Sanitation Dignity and Distress
In many low-water settings, women most especially struggle to meet their basic sanitary needs. This is an often humiliating, deeply-distressing phenomena called “period poverty.” Working with linguistic anthropologist Cindi SturtzSreetharan, the GES is looking at the ways women express their sanitary concerns to others (such as husbands or friends), and how others understand and react to the different ways they communicate distress. We ask: what factors help women claim dignity in managing the profound challenges of sanitation insecurity?
COVID, Handwashing and Water Insecurity
In 2020-21, working with water-health experts Justin Stoler (University of Miami) and Asher Rosinger (Penn State University) and the Household Water Insecurity Experience research coordination network (HWISE-RCN), we focused all our efforts on advancing novel analyses of existing GES data to support planning around management of COVID risk in low-water communities globally (especially from our multi-country 2015 study on hygiene norms and 2017 study on measuring water insecurity). This included producing new research findings, reviews, and policy statements on how COVID and water insecurity intersected with handwashing and other health-relevant behaviors.
Plumbing Poverty, Social Disparities and Water Insecurity
Many households globally do not have sufficient plumbing infrastructure to get safe, sufficient water into the home, undermining health and wellbeing. The GES partnered with the Plumbing Poverty Project, an effort to address questions of how social and geographic factors shape people’s risk of water insecurity through the mechanism of incomplete household plumbing. The Plumbing Poverty Project is led by Katie Meehan, Department of Geography, Kings College London.
Water Sharing in the Wake of Disaster
How do people work together to deal with serious water shocks in the wake of hurricanes or other dreadful natural disasters? Do prior experiences of living with water shortage versus plenty impact people’s strategies for water sharing when catastrophe strikes?
Collaborators include Carlos Garcia-Quijano, University of Rhode Island and Natalia Rodriguez, University of Puerto Rico.
Data were collected in mid 2018. Data analysis will be completed in 2019.
Measuring Household Water Insecurity
What does household water insecurity look like in four low-resource countries? Can a scale be validated to measure this in a range of contexts? How can researchers support adaptation and implementation of a household water insecurity scale in low-resource settings?
Collaborators include Sera Young, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University; Wendy Jepson, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University; Roseanne Schuster, Arizona State University.
Data were collected in 2017. Data analysis is underway.
Ecosystem Services in Rivers
How are ecosystem services equitably or inequitably distributed in riverine environments? How do local respondents describe ecosystem services and disservices, and what are their understandings of equitable or inequitable distribution of these services?
Collaborators include CAP-LTER, an NSF-funded research collaborative at ASU.
Data collection was conducted in 2016.
Water, Hygienic Norms + Hygiene Stigma
Viewed cross-culturally, are hygiene norms more lax or accommodating in water-poor environments? Within water-poor communities, can and do people adjust their own hygiene standards and their judgments of others to accommodate specific challenges of living with little water?
Collaborators include Matthew Gervais, Simon Fraser University.
Data collection was conducted in 2015. A book is under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press.
Uncertainty + Climate Change + Distress
Who is most vulnerable to the psychological and emotional effects of climate-change uncertainty? How do livelihood, connection to place and local ecology matter?
Collaborators include Meg du Bray, Idaho State University Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology.
Wastewater and Water Quality Concerns
What shapes acceptance of waste water reuse? Are there universal concerns regarding drinking recycled waste water? Is sewage mining for water always considered repulsive?
Collaborators include Jacelyn Rice, Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Rhian Stotts, Arizona State University
Uncertainty + Climate Science
Are there cross-cultural differences in how people view uncertainty in climate science? If so, what criteria do people use to evaluate climate science? Which findings are perceived to be most salient, which are considered most uncertain, and why?
Collaborators include Dave White, Arizona State University School of Community Resources and Development and Kelli Larson, Arizona State University Schools of Sustainability and Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning.
The Science of Water Art: A Citizen Science Project
How do Arizona schoolchildren understand water use in their communities today, and how do they envision water will be used in their communities 100 years from now? What role does gender play in children’s portrayal of community water use?
Collaborators include Holly Vins (Karna, LLC) and Alissa Ruth (ASU).
Are there universals in how people globally think about and assess the disease risks and health benefits of water?
Collaborators include Alyson Young, University of Florida Department of Anthropology.
Water, Institutions and Environmental Justice
Are there universals in how people conceive of fair water distribution systems? What role do institutional rules and norms play in people’s understanding of justice in water systems?
Collaborators include Abigail York, Arizona State University, School of Human Evolution and Social Change.
Climate Change + Local Ecological Knowledge
How do local factors shape people’s perceptions of climate change? Are there cross-cultural models of climate change signs, or are such models local and idiosyncratic?
Collaborators include Beatrice Crona, Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Center.
Water Quality in Phoenix
What do urban residents perceive to cause poor water quality? What remedies (institutional or individual) do they believe should be used to address poor water quality? How does living in a neighborhood with perceived high or low water quality affect cultural models of water quality?
Collaborators include Meredith Gartin, Arizona State University, Global Institute of Sustainability.
Partners: Penn State University | University of Rhode Island | University of Puerto Rico | Northwestern University | Texas A&M University | Simon Fraser University | Idaho State University | Duke University | University of Florida | Stockholm University
This project was initially funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. SES-0345945 Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), NSF grant number DEB-0423704 Central Arizona–Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research