Gary Schwartz

Assoc Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402
Associate Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402
IHO Research Associate and Associate Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402
Assoc Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402
IHO Research Associate and Associate Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402
Assoc Professor
Faculty
TEMPE Campus
Mailcode
2402

Biography

Gary Schwartz is interested in the evolutionary history of primate and human growth and development as evidenced from developing tooth tissues. Teeth grow in an incremental manner, like trees and shells, preserving a record of their growth in the form of daily lines. The rate at which teeth grow is very closely linked to all kinds of important biological variables such as brain size, gestation length, longevity, etc.

Recently, Schwartz has been studying how using information on the time and timing of dental development can help us understand the evolutionary history of the extended growth period so unique to modern humans. Current work using the incremental structures in teeth is also addressing fundamental questions related to the developmental bases of canine sexual dimorphism during primate evolution and the role dental development plays in life history evolution.

His work bridges the gap between comparative anatomy/morphology and evolutionary developmental biology. In conjunction with new discoveries in genetics and developmental biology, the type of information produced in his lab provides an exciting way of exploring the mechanisms that underlie morphological change during evolution. The techniques routinely used in his lab involve the preparation of histological thin sections of modern and fossil teeth for transmitted and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and computed tomography are used to examine non-invasively the internal structures of fossil teeth.

In addition to labwork, Schwartz goes to the field to collect original fossil hominid material.

Education

  • Ph.D., Washington University 1997
  • M.A., Washington University 1993
  • B.A., Stony Brook University 1990

Publications

Stroik, LK and Schwartz, GT (2018). The role of dietary competition in the origination and early diversification of North American euprimates. Proc Biol Sci. Aug 1; 285(1884).  DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1230. PDF

Ortiz, A, Bailey, SE, Schwartz, GT, Hublin, J-J, and Skinner, MM (2018). Evo-devo models of tooth development and the origin of hominoid molar diversity. Science Advances Apr 11;4(4):eaar2334. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar2334. PDF

Glowacka, H, McFarlin, SC, Vogel, ER, Stoinski, TS, Ndagijimana, F, Tuyisingize, T, Mudakikwa, A, and Schwartz, GT. (2017). Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet across an altitudinal gradient.  American Journal of Primatology 79(8):e22661. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22661. PDF

Miller ER, Gunnell GF, Seiffert ER, Sallam H, and Schwartz GT. (2017). Patterns of dental emergence in early anthropoid primates from the Fayum Depression, Egypt. Historical Biology 30:157-165. DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2017.1294169. PDF

Evans, AR, Daly, ES, Catlett, KK, Paul, KS, King, SJ, Skinner, MM, Nesse, HP, Hublin, J-J, Townsend, GC, Schwartz, GT, and Jernvall, J. (2016). A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size. Nature 530:477-480. PDF

Glowacka, H, McFarlin, SC, Catlett, K, Mudakikwa, A, Bromage, TG, Cranfield, MR, Stoinski, TS, and Schwartz, GT. (2016). Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 160:3-15. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22943. PDF

Hogg, R, Godfrey, LR, Schwartz, GT, Dirks, WD, Bromage, TG (2015). Lemur biorhythms and life history evolution. PLoS One. Aug 12;10(8):e0134210.  Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134210. PDF

Godfrey, LR, Schwartz, GT, Jungers, WL, Catlett, KK, Samonds, KE, King, SJ, Muldoon, KM, Irwin, MT, Burney, DA. Anthropoid analogues? Life history variation in Madagascar’s giant extinct lemurs. Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology (2013).

Gary T. Schwartz (2012). Growth, development, and life history throughout the evolution of Homo. Current Anthropology 53 (Suppl. 6): 395-408. PDF

Kelley, J. and Schwartz, G.T. (2012) Life-history inference in the early hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus. International Journal of Primatology 33: 1332-1363. PDF

M. Teague O'Mara, Adam D. Gordon, Kierstin K. Catlett, Carl J. Terranova and Gary T. Schwartz (2012). Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147: 11-20. PDF

Catlett, K.C., Schwartz, G.T., Godfrey, L.R., and Jungers, W.L. (2010). "Life history space": A multivariate analysis of life history variation in extinct and extant Malagasy lemurs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143: 391-404. PDF

Copes, L.E., Schwartz, G.T. (2010) The scale of it all: postcanine tooth size, the taxon-level effect, and the universality of Gould’s scaling law. Paleobiology 36:188-203. PDF

Kelley, J., and Schwartz, G.T. (2010). Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:1035-1040. PDF

Ritzman, TB, Baker, BJ, and Schwartz, GT (2008). A Fine Line: A preliminary study comparing methods of estimating ages of linear enamel hypoplasia formation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135:348-361. PDF

Godfrey, LR, Jungers, WL, Schwartz, GT, and Irwin, MT (2008). Ghosts and orphans: Madagascar’s vanishing ecosystems. In: Fleagle, J.G. & Gilbert, C.C., editors. Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins. pp. 361-395. Springer, New York.

Schwartz, GT and Dean MC (2008).  Charting the chronology of developing teeth. In: Irish, J.D. & Nelson, G.C., editors. Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology. (Series: Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology), Cambridge University Press. Chapter 9, pp. 143-162.

Orr, CM, Delezene, LK, Scott, JE, Tocheri, M, and Schwartz, GT (2007). The comparative method and the inference of venom delivery systems in fossil mammals.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27:541-546. PDF

Schwartz GT, LR Godfrey, and P Mahoney. (2007). Inferring primate growth, development, and life history from dental microstructure: The case of the extinct giant Malagasy lemur, Megaladapis. In: Bailey, S. & Hublin, J.-J., editors. Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution: State of the Art Research in Dental Anthropology. pp. 145-160. Springer Press.

Mahoney, P†, Smith, TM, Schwartz, GT, Dean, MC, and Kelley, J (2007).  Molar crown formation in the late Miocene Asian hominoids, Sivapithecus parvada and Sivapithecus indicus. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 61-68.

Godfrey, L.R, Jungers, W.L, Burney, D.A, Vasey, N., Ramilisonina, Wheeler, W., Lemelin, P, Shapiro, L.J, Schwartz, GT, King, S.J, Ramarolahy, M.F, Raharivony, L.L, and Randria, G.F.N. (2006). New discoveries of skeletal elements of Hadropithecus stenognathus from Andrahomana Cave, southeastern Madagascar.  Journal of Human Evolution 51: 395-410.

Godfrey, LR, GT Schwartz, KE Samonds, WL Jungers, and KK Catlett. (2006).  The Secrets of Lemur Teeth.  Evolutionary Anthropology 15: 142-154.

Schwartz GT, Reid DJ, Dean MC, and Zihlman AL. (2006). A faithful record of stressful life events preserved in the dental developmental record of a juvenile gorilla. International Journal of Primatology 27: 1201-1222.

Gebo DL, Schwartz GT.  (2006).  Foot bones from Omo: Implications for hominid evolution.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129: 499-511.

Godfrey, LR, WL Jungers, GT Schwartz. (2006). Ecology and extinction of Madagascar’s subfossil lemurs. In: Gould L. & Sauther, M., editors. Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation. pp. 41-65.  New York: Springer.

Schwartz GT, Mahoney P, Godfrey LR, Cuozzo FP, Jungers WL and Randria, G.F.N.  (2005).  Dental development in Megaladapis edwardsi (Primates, Lemuriformes): Implications for understanding life history variation in subfossil lemurs. Journal of Human Evolution 49: 702-721. 

Schwartz GT and Dean MC. (2005).  Sexual dimorphism in modern human permanent teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128: 312-317. 

Godfrey, LR, GM Semprebon, GT Schwartz, DA Burney, WL Jungers, EK Flanagan, FP Cuozzo, and SJ King. (2005).  New insights into old lemurs: The trophic adaptations of the Archaeolemuridae. International Journal of Primatology 26:825-854. 

Schwartz GT, Miller ER, Gunnell GF (2005). Developmental processes, life history and canine dimorphism in primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 48:97-103. 

Schwartz GT and Godfrey LR (2003).  The extinct sloth lemurs of Madagascar: Big bodies, fast teeth. Evolutionary Anthropology 12, 259. 

Schwartz GT, Liu W, and Zheng L (2003). Preliminary investigation of dental microstructure in the Yuanmou hominoid (Lufengpithecus hudienensis) Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Human Evolution 44,189-202. 

Schwartz GT, Jungers WL, Samonds KE, Godfrey LR and Simons EL (2002).  Dental microstructure and life history in subfossil Malagasy lemurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 6124-6129. 

Dean MC, Leakey MG, Reid D, Schrenk F, Schwartz GT, Stringer C & Walker AC. (2001) Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 414, 628-631. 

Schwartz GT & Dean MC (2001). The ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115, 269-283. 

Schwartz GT, Reid DJ and Dean MC (2001). Developmental aspects of sexual dimorphism in hominoid canines. International Journal of Primatology 22, 837-860. 

Halberg F, Cornélissen G, Appenzeller O, Wallace J, Acosta MA, Schwartz GT and Dean MC. (2001). Chronomics: different multiseptans in enamel of ancient and contemporaneous teeth. Proc, 2nd Int. Symp., Workshop on Chronoastrobiology and Chronotherapy, Otemachi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo.

Schwartz, GT and Dean, MC (2000). Interpreting the hominid dentition: Ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects.  In: O’Higgins P. & Cohen, M., editors. Development, Growth and Evolution: Implications for the Study of Hominid Skeleton. London: Academic Press. pp. 207-233.

Schwartz GT, Reid DJ, Dean MC and Chandrasekera MS (2000). Aspects of tooth crown development in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a note on the possible role of sexual dimorphism in canine growth.  Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Dental Morphology. pp. 323-337.

Schwartz GT (2000a). Taxonomic and functional aspects of the patterning of enamel thickness distribution in extant large-bodied hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 111, 221-244. 

Schwartz GT (2000b). Enamel thickness and the helicoidal wear plane in modern human mandibular molars. Archives of Oral Biology 45, 401-409. 

Reid DJ, Schwartz GT, Chandrasekera MS, and Dean MC (1998). A histological reconstruction of dental development in the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. Journal of Human Evolution 35, 427-448. 

Schwartz GT, Thackeray JF, Reid C and van Reenan JF (1998). Enamel thickness and the topography of the enamel-dentine junction in South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids with special reference to the Carabelli trait.  Journal of Human Evolution 35, 523-542. 

Schwartz GT (1997). Re-evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene Hyraxes (Mammalia: Procaviidae) from South Africa.  Neues Jarhbuch für Geologie und Paläeontologie, Abhandlungen. 206, 365-383.

Schwartz GT and Kuykendall KL (1996). Enamel Structure and Development.  Evolutionary Anthropology 5, 150-151.

Schwartz GT and Conroy GC (1996). Cross-sectional geometric properties of the Otavipithecus mandible. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 99, 613-623. 

Schwartz GT, Rasmussen DT, and Smith RJ (1995). Body-size diversity & community structure of fossil hyracoids. Journal of Mammalogy 76, 1088-1099.  

Research Activity

Courses

Fall 2018
Course Number Course Title
ASM 341 Human Osteology
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 493 Honors Thesis
ASB 499 Individualized Instruction
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Summer 2018
Course Number Course Title
ASM 338 Anthropological Field Session
ASB 375 Humans and the Environment
ASM 414 Urban and Environmental Health
ASB 792 Research
Spring 2018
Course Number Course Title
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 525 Primate Paleobiology
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Fall 2017
Course Number Course Title
ASM 341 Human Osteology
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 493 Honors Thesis
ASB 499 Individualized Instruction
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Summer 2017
Course Number Course Title
ASM 792 Research
ASB 792 Research
Spring 2017
Course Number Course Title
ASM 452 Dental Anthropology
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASM 552 Dental Anthropology
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Fall 2016
Course Number Course Title
ASM 104 Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
ASB 191 First-Year Seminar
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 493 Honors Thesis
ASB 499 Individualized Instruction
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASM 590 Reading and Conference
ASM 592 Research
ASB 592 Research
ASM 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 792 Research
ASB 792 Research
ASM 799 Dissertation
ASB 799 Dissertation
Summer 2016
Course Number Course Title
ASB 792 Research
ASM 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Spring 2016
Course Number Course Title
ASB 210 Human Sexuality: Anth Perspect
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASB 792 Research
ASB 799 Dissertation
Fall 2015
Course Number Course Title
ASM 460 Human Growth & Development
ASB 484 Internship
ASB 492 Honors Directed Study
ASB 493 Honors Thesis
ASB 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 590 Reading and Conference
ASB 592 Research
ASM 592 Research
ASB 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 792 Research
ASB 792 Research
ASM 799 Dissertation
ASB 799 Dissertation
Summer 2015
Course Number Course Title
ASM 792 Research
Spring 2015
Course Number Course Title
ASM 104 Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
ASM 484 Internship
ASM 493 Honors Thesis
ASM 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 590 Reading and Conference
ASM 592 Research
ASM 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 792 Research
ASM 799 Dissertation
Fall 2014
Course Number Course Title
ASM 341 Human Osteology
ASM 484 Internship
ASM 492 Honors Directed Study
ASM 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 590 Reading and Conference
ASM 592 Research
ASM 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 792 Research
ASM 799 Dissertation
Summer 2014
Course Number Course Title
ASM 792 Research
Spring 2014
Course Number Course Title
ASM 452 Dental Anthropology
ASM 484 Internship
ASM 492 Honors Directed Study
ASM 493 Honors Thesis
ASM 499 Individualized Instruction
ASM 552 Dental Anthropology
ASM 590 Reading and Conference
ASM 592 Research
ASM 790 Reading and Conference
ASM 792 Research
ASM 799 Dissertation